Increasing The Capacity of Headstega Based on Bitwise Operation

Hasmawati Hasmawati, Ari Moesriami Barmawi


Headstega (Head steganography) is a noiseless steganography that used email headers as a cover for concealing messages. However, it has less embedding capacity and it raises suspicion. For overcoming the problem, bitwise operation is proposed.  In the proposed method, the message was embedded into the cover by converting the message and the cover into binary representation based on a mapping table that was already known by the sender and the receiver. Furthermore, XOR bitwise operations were applied to the secret message and cover bits based on random numbers that were generated using a modular function. Moreover, the result was converted into characters that represent the secret message bits. After embedding the message into the cover, an email alias was generated to camouflage the secret message characters. Finally, the sender sends the embedded cover and the email alias to the recipient. Using the proposed method, the embedding capacity is 89% larger than using the original Headstega. For reducing the adversary’s suspicion, the existing email address was used instead of creating a new email address.


Noiseless Steganography, Headstega, Key, XOR bitwise operation, Bit randomization

Full Text:




  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright © Jurnal Ilmu Komputer dan Informasi. Faculty of Computer Science Universitas Indonesia.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.