The Stock Exchange Prediction using Machine Learning Techniques: A Comprehensive and Systematic Literature Review
This literature review identifies and analyzes research topic trends, types of data sets, learning algorithm, methods improvements, and frameworks used in stock exchange prediction. A total of 81 studies were investigated, which were published regarding stock predictions in the period January 2015 to June 2020 which took into account the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The literature review methodology is carried out in three major phases: review planning, implementation, and report preparation, in nine steps from defining systematic review requirements to presentation of results. Estimation or regression, clustering, association, classification, and preprocessing analysis of data sets are the five main focuses revealed in the main study of stock prediction research. The classification method gets a share of 35.80% from related studies, the estimation method is 56.79%, data analytics is 4.94%, the rest is clustering and association is 1.23%. Furthermore, the use of the technical indicator data set is 74.07%, the rest are combinations of datasets. To develop a stock prediction model 48 different methods have been applied, 9 of the most widely applied methods were identified. The best method in terms of accuracy and also small error rate such as SVM, DNN, CNN, RNN, LSTM, bagging ensembles such as RF, boosting ensembles such as XGBoost, ensemble majority vote and the meta-learner approach is ensemble Stacking. Several techniques are proposed to improve prediction accuracy by combining several methods, using boosting algorithms, adding feature selection and using parameter and hyper-parameter optimization.
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