Increasing The Capacity of Headstega Based on Bitwise Operation

  • Hasmawati Hasmawati Telkom University
  • Ari Moesriami Barmawi Telkom University
Keywords: Noiseless Steganography, Headstega, Key, XOR bitwise operation, Bit randomization


Headstega (Head steganography) is a noiseless steganography that used email headers as a cover for concealing messages. However, it has less embedding capacity and it raises suspicion. For overcoming the problem, bitwise operation is proposed.  In the proposed method, the message was embedded into the cover by converting the message and the cover into binary representation based on a mapping table that was already known by the sender and the receiver. Furthermore, XOR bitwise operations were applied to the secret message and cover bits based on random numbers that were generated using a modular function. Moreover, the result was converted into characters that represent the secret message bits. After embedding the message into the cover, an email alias was generated to camouflage the secret message characters. Finally, the sender sends the embedded cover and the email alias to the recipient. Using the proposed method, the embedding capacity is 89% larger than using the original Headstega. For reducing the adversary’s suspicion, the existing email address was used instead of creating a new email address.

Author Biographies

Hasmawati Hasmawati, Telkom University
Fakultas Informatika
Ari Moesriami Barmawi, Telkom University
Fakultas Informatika
How to Cite
Hasmawati, H., & Barmawi, A. M. (2021). Increasing The Capacity of Headstega Based on Bitwise Operation. Jurnal Ilmu Komputer Dan Informasi, 14(2), 113-126.